Territory of Modern Serbia – Home to 18 Roman Emperors

18 Roman Emperors were born on the territory occupied today by the Republic of Serbia. At the time, this area was divided among several Roman provinces, mostly including Pannonia Secunda and Moesia Superior and inhabited by various Celtic (Scordisci), Illyrian (Autariates, Breuci, Daesitiates, Dardanii) and Thracian (Moesi, Sings, Triballi) tribes. There were 17 emperors and 1 Caesar, born mostly in or near the important Roman cities of Sirmium, Felix Romuliana and Naissus and measured by the modern international borders, it is the second largest number of Roman emperors from one country, after Italy itself. In chronological order they were:

  1. Trajan Decius – born in ca. 201 in Budalia, Pannonia Inferior (modern Martinci, Syrmia, Vojvodina). Emperor from 249 to June 251. Killed in 251 in the Battle of Abrittus (modern Razgrad, Bulgaria).
  1. Herennius Etruscus – born in ca. 227, near Sirmium, Pannonia (modern Sremska Mitrovica, Syrmia, Vojvodina). Son of Trajan Decius, co-emperor with his father from early 251 to June 251. Killed, together with his father, in the Battle of Abrittus.
  1. Hostilian – born in Sirmium, Illyricum. Son of Trajan Decius, emperor in 251, opposed by Trebonianus Gallus. Died of plague in Rome, in 251. One of only 13 Roman Emperors who died of natural causes.
  1. Claudius II Gothicus – born in Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior, on May 10, 213. Emperor from September 268 to January 270. Died of plague in Rome, in January 270.
  1. Aurelian – born in Sirmium, Dacia Ripensis, on 9 September, 214. Emperor from September 270 to September 275. Proclaimed by the legions in Sirmium, opposed by Quintillus whom he defeted and became sole emperor. Murdered in September 275 in Caenophrurium, Thrace (modern Çorlu, Turkey).
  1. Probus – born in Sirmium, Pannonia, ca. 232. Emperor from 276 to October 282. Proclaimed by the soldier, opposed by Florianus, who was murdered, leaving Probus as the sole emperor. Murdered by the soldiers in October 282 in Sirmium.
  1. Maximian – born in Sirmium in ca. 250. Three times emperor: from April 1, 286 to May 1, 305, jointly with Diocletian, opposing emperor from 306 to November 11, 308, jointly with Maxentius, and opposing emperor in 310. Committed suicide in ca. July 310 in Massilia (modern Marseilles, France).
  1. Constantius I Chlorus – born on March 31, 250 in Naissus (modern Niš). Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from May 1, 305 to July 25, 306. Died on July 25, 306 in Eboracum, Britannia (modern York, Great Britain).
  1. Galerius – born ca. 250 in Felix Romuliana (modern Gamzigrad). Emperor from May 1, 305 to May 5, 311. Died on May 5, 311 of bowel cancer or gangrene.
  1. Maximinus Daia – born on November 20, 270 in Felix Romuliana. Emperor from May 1, 310 to April 30, 312, opposed by Licinius. Committed suicide in August 313 in Tarsus, Cilicia (modern Tarsus, Turkey).
  1. Severus II – born in Illyricum. Emperor from 306 to April 307, opposed by Constantine I, Maxentius and Maximian. Executed on September 16, 307 in Tres Tabernae (near modern Cisterna di Latina, Italy).
  1. Constantine I – born on February 27, 272 in Naissus. Emperor from July 25, 306 to May 22, 337. Elevated Christianity to the state level religion, united Roman Empire, founded Constantinople. Died on May 22, 337 in Nicomedia, Bithynia (modern ?zmit, Turkey).
  1. Licinius – born ca. 250 in Felix Romuliana. Three times emperor: of the Western Roman Empore from November 11, 308 to September 18, 324 (jointly with Galerius, 308-311, Maximinus, 311-313 and Constantine I, 313-324. Abdicated, murdered by Constantine I in 325 in Thessalonica (modern Salonika, Greece).
  1. Constantius II – born August 7, 317 in Sirmium. Emperor from 337 to October 5, 361, jointly with Constans and Constantine II. Died of fever on October 5, 361, near Tarsus.
  1. Vetranio – born in Moesia (modern Central Serbia). As caesar, co-ruler of Constantius II from March 1 to December 25, 350. Committed suicide in ca. 360.
  1. Jovian – born in 331 in Singidunum (modern Belgrade, capital of Serbia; the only emperor born here). Emperor from June 27, 363 to February 17, 364. Suffocated by accident on February 17, 364 near Nicaea, Bithynia (modern ?znik,Turkey).
  1. Gratian – born on April 18, 359 in Sirmium, Pannonia. Emperor from August 4, 367 to August 25, 383, jointly with Valentinian I to 375, then with Valentinian II. Murdered by the rebels on August 25, 383 in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon, France).
  1. Constantius III – born in Naissus. Western Roman Emperor from February 8 to September 2, 421, jointly with Honorius. Died suddenly on September 2, 421.

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